• Introduction for the new generation Bluetooth Audio (LE Audio) - New audio codec LC3
    LE Audio  Bluetooth SIG introduced and demonstrated new generation Bluetooth Audio – LE Audio in CES 2020.  Classic Audio operates on the Bluetooth Classic radio while LE Audio operates on the Bluetooth Low Energy radio. LE Audio will not only support development of the same audio products and use cases as Classic Audio, it will introduce exciting new features that promise to improve their performance as well as enable the creation of new products and use cases. New Audio Codec LC3 LC3 means Low Complexity Communications Codec. Bluetooth SIG organized members including world class audio codec R&D companies to develop the new codec by using state of art audio codec algorithms and finally LC3 codec was adopted and released by Bluetooth SIG on 15 Spec 2020.  All LE Audio Profiles will be required to implement the advanced LC3 codec.  LC3 is an efficient Bluetooth® audio codec for use in LE Audio profiles. It is capable of encoding speech and music at various bitrates and can be incorporated in any Bluetooth audio profile. To increase the audio quality, it is strongly recommended to implement PLC (Packet Loss Concealment) at receiving ends of audio connections. The role of PLC is to conceal the effect of unavailable or corrupted frame data for decoding (an example of PLC is provided in the LC3 codec specification). Some of the technical properties of LC3 include: ●It is a block-based transform audio codec ●It provides a wide range of usable bitrates ●It supports a frame interval of 10 ms and 7.5 ms ●It supports the following bit depths: 16, 24, and 32 bits per audio sample ●It supports an unlimited number of audio channels ●It supports the following sampling rates: 8 kHz, 16 kHz, 24 kHz, 32 kHz, 44.1 kHz, and 48 kHz The new LC3 provides higher quality at the same rates as SBC, or even better quality at a much lower data rate. LC3 supported codec parameters are listed in following table: Providing high quality even at low data rates, LC3 will bring tremendous flexibility to developers, allowing them to make better design tradeoffs between key product attributes, such as audio quality and power consumption. There are different ways to judge the quality of a codec. The most common way is live listening comparison for people to listen and compare the audio after it has been compressed and decompressed. Other ways include standard quantitative methods for measuring performance of audio codecs, such as the one shown in the graph below that compares the performance of LC3 to SBC.  A few notes about the above graph: ●The X-axis represents various bitrates for each SBC and LC3 ●The Y-axis represents a grading scale (0 ~ 5) as defined in ITU-R BS.1116-3 (PDF), which presents Methods for the subjective assessment of small impairments in audio systems If you look at the 345-kbps bit rate for example, you’ll see that SBC scores a value just above 4.0, whereas LC3 scores an even higher amount with less than half the bit rate (160 kbps) The release of LC3 represents the completion of the second of the three key building blocks. The Bluetooth SIG member community is currently hard at work developing new profile specifications that define interoperable support for existing and new audio products and use cases, including hearing aids and Audio Sharing. As we’ve learned in this article, the new LE Audio standard, including LC3, marks a very exciting and important milestone in the development of the Bluetooth® technology standard, one that will enable the advancement and innovations in wireless audio for years to come! It is notable that according to Bluetooth® Patent/Copyright License Agreement use of LC3 does not need to pay patent royalty if products using LC3 coded passed through the Qualification Process.  As leader of Bluetooth Qualification Service provider AGC always follows development of Bluetooth technologies and committed to provide excellent services to Bluetooth SIG members.  Reference:
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  • Summary
    Bluetooth wireless technology Bluetooth® wireless technology is the global wireless standard enabling simple, secure connectivity for an expanding range of devices and serves as the backbone for the Internet of Things. Bluetooth® Smart technology, through its updatable platform and low-power consumption, creates new application opportunities for the mobile phone, consumer electronics, PC, automotive, health and fitness, smart home and retail industries. Bluetooth® technology is a wireless communications system intended to replace the cables connecting portable and/or fixed electronic devices. Key features of Bluetooth® technology are robustness, low power, and low cost. Many features of the Bluetooth® Core Specification are optional, allowing product differentiation. Bluetooth® Classic is the original version of the technology using the Basic Rate and/or Enhanced Data Rate transport. The low energy feature was introduced in version 4.0 of Bluetooth® technology. A product implementing only this feature is known as a single mode device. A product implementing both Classic and low energy features is known as a dual mode device. The Bluetooth® core system consists of an RF transceiver, baseband, and protocol stack. The system offers services enabling the connection of devices and the exchange of a variety of classes of data. Many features of the core specification are optional, allowing for flexible product implementations. Bluetooth Smart Bluetooth® Smart is a revolutionary technology introduced in 2010, which provided many new benefits to manufacturers, developers and consumers. Bluetooth® Smart is the brand name for the Bluetooth® Low Energy feature first introduced in Bluetooth® Core Specification Version 4.0. Bluetooth® Smart goes beyond being simply power-friendly; it is application-friendly too. The technology is power-friendly because it uses dramatically less power than other wireless technologies. It's application-friendly because it costs less and offers flexible development architecture for creating applications for Bluetooth® Smart sensors. This allows developers to bring everyday objects like heart-rate monitors, toothbrushes, and shoes into the connected world and have them communicate with applications that reside on the Bluetooth® Smart compatible smartphones, tablets, or similar devices those consumers already own.
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  • Why choose AGC
    Our Competence and advantage 1st Bluetooth SIG recognized Bluetooth® Qualification Expert (BQE) in mainland China Unique Bluetooth SIG recognized Bluetooth® Training Instructor and Bluetooth® QEP Auditor in mainland China. 1st and currently unique Bluetooth SIG recognized Bluetooth® Qualification Testing Facility (BQTF) owns two brands BR/EDR/LE RF test systems in Southern China BQTF recognition AGC built Bluetooth® Products Testing Laboratory with huge investment, and the lab had been recognized by Bluetooth SIG as Bluetooth® Qualification Testing Facility (BQTF).  At the end of year 2014 the AGC newly purchased Bluetooth® RF Test System – InterLab® Bluetooth® RF Test Solution came into service officially, with the new test system AGC becomes the unique BQTF in Southern China which owns two brands BR/EDR/LE Bluetooth® RF test systems. BQE AGC employed the 1st Bluetooth SIG recognized Bluetooth® Qualification Expert (BQE) in mainland China whom was awarded as Bluetooth SIG Top 10 BQE for several years and approved the most Bluetooth® Qualification projects in mainland China.  With the own BQTF and top BQE AGC provide one-stop excellent qualify Bluetooth® Qualification services to Bluetooth® product developers, manufacturers and brand owners.
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  • Bluetooth Compliance Program
    License Agreement The Bluetooth® Compliance Program includes the process members complete to demonstrate and declare the products they build, brand or otherwise represent as their own comply with the requirements of the Bluetooth® license agreements. The two licensing agreements are:  Bluetooth® Patent & Copyright License Agreement — a reciprocal license between each Bluetooth SIG Member to the intellectual property that each member owns  Bluetooth® Trademark License Agreement — a license between the Bluetooth SIG (owner of the Bluetooth® trademark) and each member authorizing use of the Bluetooth® trademarks Bluetooth Mark Bluetooth SIG encourages member companies to review the conditions of the license agreements and consult their legal counsel with any questions regarding the applicable requirements. If a company wants to use the Bluetooth® trademarks, the company must complete the Bluetooth® Compliance Program. There are two steps of the process members complete using an online tool administered by the SIG — Qualification and Declaration.
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  • Bluetooth Qualification Process
    Qualifications Process The Bluetooth® Qualification Process refers to the qualification of a specific design of Bluetooth® wireless technology by an individual Member. The design applies and is limited to those specific portions of a product implementing and being compliant with a Bluetooth® Specification, as declared in the Implementation Conformance Statement (“ICS”). A qualified design of Bluetooth® wireless technology shall meet all Bluetooth® Qualification Requirements on an implementation (i.e. a product) of that design.  Bluetooth® Qualification shall refer to a specific version of the Bluetooth® Specification and to all Bluetooth® Qualification Requirements pertaining to such version.  Qualifications Requirements Bluetooth® Qualification Requirements comprises of the following:  - Testing  - Documentation  - Document Filing  - Assessment  - Supplier Declaration of Conformity (SDoC)  - Compliance to Auditing and Enforcement  The Bluetooth SIG assesses an administrative fee on completion of this process (known as the Declaration fee) to cover the costs of operating the compliance program and providing other important member tools. The fee is USD 4,000 per declaration for Associate and Promoter members and USD 8,000 per declaration for Adopter members. Note: there are instances where members may list multiple products under one declaration if these products implements same Qualified Design(s). Additionally, small or start-up member companies can purchase up to two declarations for a fee of USD 2,500 each, if they meet the requirements of the Innovation Incentive Program (IIP).  Qualifications Process Qualification Process for New Design or Modified Qualified Design Qualification Process for Product using End Product or Subsystem Qualified Design(s)
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  • Bluetooth Enforcement Program
    Enforcement Policy Members not completing the compliance program requirements or misusing the Bluetooth® trademarks for the products they build, brand or otherwise represent as their own, are subject to enforcement action. Effective 5 August 2014, the Board of Directors of Bluetooth SIG Inc. updated the Bluetooth SIG's trademark license enforcement policy.  The Enforcement Program consists of market surveillance, listing audits and compliance folder audits. All members are subject to Enforcement Program activities.  The scope of market surveillance covers all products containing Bluetooth® wireless technology. If the Bluetooth SIG is unable to verify a product’s compliance to the Compliance Program requirements using the listing and documentation database, the company will be notified of their potential non-compliance.  It is important to note that customs officials use the Bluetooth SIG’s online listing database to verify a product’s compliance to the license agreements. If customs is unable verify a product’s compliance to the Bluetooth SIG’s requirements, the product may be seized and held until the requirements have been satisfied or destroyed if left unresolved.  Process Enforcement Escalation Process
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  • Bluetooth Qualification Testing-Profile/Service
    Classical Bluetooth Profile Profile 描述 3DSP 3D Synchronization Profile A2DP Advanced Audio Distribution Profile AVRCP Audio/Video Remote Control Profile BIP Basic Imaging Profile BPP Basic Printing Profile CTN Calendar, Tasks and Notes Profile DI Device ID DUN Dial Up Networking Profile FTP File Transfer Profile GAVDP Generic Audio/Video Distribution Profile GNSS Global Navigation Satellite System Profile GOEP Generic Object Exchange Profile GPP Generic PIM Profile HCRP Hard Copy Cable Replacement Profile HDP Health Device Profile HFP Hands-Free Profile HID Human Interface Device Profile HSP Headset Profile IOP Interoperability Test Specification MAP Message Access Profile OPP Object Push Profile PAN Personal Area Networking Profile PBAP Phone Book Access Profile SPP Serial Port Profile SYNC Synchronization Profile SAP SIM Access Profile VDP Video Distribution Profile Smart Bluetooth Profiles/Services (GATT-based) Profile/Service Description ANP Alert Notification Profile ANS Alert Notification Service BAS Battery Service BCS Body Composition Service BLP Blood Pressure Profile BLS Blood Pressure Service BMS Bond Management Service CPP Cycling Power Profile CPS Cycling Power Service CSCP Cycling Speed and Cadence Profile CSCS Cycling Speed and Cadence Service CGMS CGM Service CGMP CGM Profile CTS Current Time Service DIS Device Information Service ESS Environmental Sensing Service ESP Environmental Sensing Profile FMP Find Me Profile GLP Glucose Profile GLS Glucose Service HIDS HID Service HOGP HID over GATT Profile HRP Heart Rate Profile HRS Heart Rate Service HTP Health Thermometer Profile HTS Health Thermometer Service IAS Immediate Alert Service IPSP Internet Protocol Support Profile LLS Link Loss Service LNP Location and Navigation Profile LNS Location and Navigation Service NDCS Next DST Change Service PASP Phone Alert Status Profile PASS Phone Alert Status Service PXP Proximity Profile RSCP Running Speed and Cadence Profile RSCS Running Speed and Cadence Service RTUS Reference Time Update Service SCPP Scan Parameters Profile SCPS Scan Parameters Service TIP Time Profile TPS Tx Power Service UDS User Data Service WSP Weight Scale Profile WSS Weight Scale Service
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