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PAHs

Overview

Summary

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), also known as poly-aromatic hydrocarbons or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, are potent atmospheric pollutants that consist of fused aromatic rings and do not contain heteroatoms or carry substituents. Naphthalene is the simplest example of a PAH. PAHs occur in oil, coal, and tar deposits, and are produced as byproducts of fuel burning (whether fossil fuel or biomass). As a pollutant, they are of concern because some compounds have been identified as carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic. PAHs are also found in cooked foods. Studies have shown that high levels of PAHs are found, for example, in meat cooked at high temperatures such as grilling or barbecuing, and in smoked fish. They are also found in the interstellar medium, in comets, and in meteorites and are a candidate molecule to act as a basis for the earliest forms of life.

Standards and Regulations

Europe began restricting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in 2005 with directive 2005/69/EC, which was later incorporated into Annex 17 of REACH. 
The GS certification of Germany restricted 18 PAHS.

In August 2014, the German technology equipment and consumer commission (ATAV) published the new control requirements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) for GS certification product, the effective time is on July 1, 2015.

Table 1: the new standard requirements for PAH (unit: mg/kg)
substance Category 1 Category 2 Category 3
The material which Can be put into mouth, or long time
contact skin of toy material (more than 
30 seconds)
The material which is not included in Category 1 , but long time contact skin
(more than 30 seconds), or contact skin repeated but
every tine for a short time
The material which is not included in Category 1 and 2, but short time contac skin (less than 30 seconds)
2the toys belong to  2009/48 / EC other products the toys belong to  2009/48 / EC other products
Benzo(a)pyrene 
< 0.2 < 0.2 < 0.5 < 0.5 < 1
Benzo(e)pyrene < 0.2 < 0.2 < 0.5 < 0.5 < 1
Benzo(a)anthracene
< 0.2 < 0.2 < 0.5 < 0.5 < 1
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
< 0.2 < 0.2 < 0.5 < 0.5 < 1
Benzo(j)fluoranthene < 0.2 < 0.2 < 0.5 < 0.5 < 1
Benzo(k)fluoranthene < 0.2 < 0.2 < 0.5 < 0.5 < 1
Chrysene
< 0.2 < 0.2 < 0.5 < 0.5 < 1
Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene < 0.2 < 0.2 < 0.5 < 0.5 < 1
Benzo(g,h,i)perylene 
< 0.2 < 0.2 < 0.5 < 0.5 < 1
Indeno(l,2,3-cd)pyrene < 0.2 < 0.2 < 0.5 < 0.5 < 1
Acenaphthylene
Acenaphthene 
Fluorene 
Phenanthrene 
Pyrene 
Anthracene
fluoranthene
<1
total
< 5
total
< 10
total
< 20
total
< 50
total
Naphthalene < 1 < 2 < 10
The total of 18 kinds pahs < 1 < 5 < 10 < 20 < 50

The affected products are as follows: 
electronic and electrical appliances,toys, food packaging materials, plastic products, rubber products, machinery and other products. entire production line and the supplier's scrutiny is very necessary.
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